27 Sep 2017

Tutorial: Contributing to Racket

posted by Ben Greenman, with help from Matthew Butterick and Robby Findler and Jack Firth and Vincent St-Amour and Sam Tobin-Hochstadt

This post describes 3 ways to contribute to Racket: (1) fixing a typo online, (2) submitting a pull request to the racket/racket repository, and (3) submitting a pull request to a repository in the Racket GitHub organization.

The source code for Racket is on GitHub. Everything that comes with #lang racket is online at https://github.com/racket/racket. This includes the compiler, the raco command-line tool, and the libraries for basic datatypes. Other packages included in the main distribution are online in repositories owned by the racket GitHub organization. These repos include racket/htdp, racket/rackunit, and racket/typed-racket.

Anyone with a GitHub account can contribute to Racket by forking a repository and submitting a pull request. To help streamline the process for potential contributors, this post explains how to submit a quality pull request for three kinds of tasks:

  1. Fixing a typo
  2. Contributing to the racket language
  3. Contributing to a main distribution package

If you have any trouble following along, ask for help via email, IRC, and/or Slack.

For a Git crash course, see: http://rogerdudler.github.io/git-guide/

See also: Contributing to Racket (the 2012 edition) and Guide for Infrequent Contributors

How to fix a typo

If you find a typo in the Racket documentation, there’s an “easy” way to submit a fix:

  1. Find the documentation source on GitHub
  2. Click the “Edit this File” button (looks like a pencil: 'Edit this File' button)
  3. Use GitHub to fork the repo and submit a pull request

The good news is that GitHub makes it easy to create the pull request. The bad news is that it can be difficult to find the right file to edit.

Hints for finding documentation

The source for The Racket Reference is here:

https://github.com/racket/racket/tree/master/pkgs/racket-doc/scribblings/reference

The source for The Racket Guide is here:

https://github.com/racket/racket/tree/master/pkgs/racket-doc/scribblings/guide

To find the documentation for a main distribution package <PKG>: (1) go to github.com/racket/<PKG>, (2) open the top-level folder named <PKG>-doc/, and (3) search for a sub-folder (or sub-sub-folder) named scribblings/.

Clicking any section header in the docs will display a module path that should be close to the documentation’s actual source. For example, The Redex Reference has a section titled “Patterns”. Clicking the section header reveals the module path "redex/redex.scrbl". This module does not contain the documentation on “Patterns”, but it includes documentation from the relative path "scribblings/ref.scrbl" which includes documentation from the relative path "ref/patterns.scrbl". That last file contains the documentation on patterns.

You are in a mazy of twisty little module paths, all alike.

See Section 18.2 of The Racket Reference for more about module paths.

If this sounds like too much work, an alternative is to (1) clone the repo, (2) use your operating system (e.g., grep) to find the right file, and (3) go back to GitHub to do the edit and submit a pull request.

How to contribute to the racket language

If you find a bug in racket/list, or want to add an example to the documentation for racket/class, or think of a useful addition to racket/logging, then you will want to install Racket from source to create a pull request.

Step 1. Install from source

To install Racket from source, (1) clone the racket/racket repository and (2) run its Makefile.

$ git clone https://github.com/racket/racket
$ cd racket
$ make

Estimated time: 3 hours

To build the Minimal Racket, run make base instead of make.

To build the Minimal Racket and test suite, run make PKGS=racket-test.

Step 2. Create a fork on GitHub

The next step is to fork the racket/racket repo on GitHub and add the fork as a remote.

# Inside the newly-cloned `racket/` directory ...
$ git remote add fork https://github.com/<YOUR-USERNAME>/racket

Step 3. Create a pull request

From here you can make a branch for your changes, do the edits, and push to your fork.

$ git checkout -b my-edits
# do edits
$ git commit
$ git push fork my-edits

Once git push finishes, visit https://github.com/racket/racket If you are logged-in, there will be a green button to “Compare & pull request”.

'Compare & pull request' button

Click it, and GitHub will show a diff between the pushed branch on your fork and the master branch on the racket/racket repo.

Hints for navigating the racket/racket repo

Built-in collections are in the folder racket/collects. For example, data json, net, and syntax.

The source for #lang racket is in the folder racket/collects/racket. This includes the reader, the racket/match package, and the racket/cmdline library.

The source for the compiler is in racket/src.

Tests for the racket language may be under the: racket-test-core/, racket-test/, or racket-test-extra/ directories.

Hints for compiling and testing

To recompile everything and rebuild the documentation, run raco setup using the raco executable from the cloned repository. To run the core suite of unit tests, run raco test -l tests/racket/test.

# From the root of the racket repo ...
$ ./racket/bin/raco setup
$ ./racket/bin/raco test -l tests/racket/test

Estimated time for setup: 1–4 hours

Estimated time for test: 1 hour

How to contribute to a main distribution package

The Racket main distribution includes many packages, such as: games, drracket, math, pict, redex, and scribble. The source for each package is on GitHub, in a repository owned by the racket organization.

The first step in contributing to a main distribution package is to get its source code. Depending on how you installed Racket, there are two ways to get the source:

Step 1a. If you installed Racket from source …

If you installed Racket from source, the following command makes a clone of the repository for the package <PKG> in the current directory.

$ raco pkg update --clone <PKG>

Estimated time: 1 hour

If raco pkg update --clone asks whether to clone dependencies, say yes.

The recommended place to store clones is in a directory named extra-pkgs/ at the top level of your clone of racket/racket. This directory is recommended because the racket repo ignores it.

1b. If you have a pre-compiled version of Racket …

If you have a compiled version of Racket, i.e. from https://download.racket-lang.org, the following pair of commands makes a clone of the repository for the package <PKG> in the current directory:

$ raco pkg update --no-setup --catalog https://pkgs.racket-lang.org <PKG>
$ raco pkg update --clone <PKG>

If raco pkg update --clone asks whether to clone dependencies, say yes.

Estimated time: 1 hour

2. Create a fork on GitHub

After installing the package, make sure to fork the racket/<PKG> repo and add your fork as a remote:

$ git remote add fork https://github.com/<YOUR-USERNAME>/<PKG>

3. Create a pull request

After creating the fork, you can make a new branch, commit changes, push to the fork, and create a pull request.

$ git checkout -b my-edits
# do edits
$ git commit
$ git push fork my-edits

Visit GitHub to create the pull request.

Hints for navigating a package

For a typical main distribution package <PKG>:

  • The implementation is in the directory <PKG>-lib/<PKG>
  • The docs are in the directory <PKG>-doc/**/scribblings
  • Unit tests are in the directory <PKG>-test
  • Some files may have additional tests in a submodule; look for (module+ test ....)

DrRacket includes a few navigational tools:

  • right-click an identifier, click “Open Defining File”
  • right-click a module name, click “Open <filename>
  • from the “File” menu, click “Open Require Path” and use the search box

The Emacs racket-mode has similar shortcuts.

The raco-find-collection package implements a command-line search tool. After installing, run raco fc <COLLECTION-PATH>.

If you’re not sure where to add tests, write a small program that tests your changes and submit it as a comment to the pull request. A repo manager can suggest how to work the script into the existing unit test suite.

Hints for compiling and testing

To recompile the code and documentation:

$ raco setup <PKG>

Estimated time: 1–5 minutes

To view the documentation:

$ raco docs <PKG>

To run some unit tests:

$ raco test -c <PKG>

The command(s) to run all unit tests depends on the package. Ask a repo owner, read the package’s .travis.yml if it exists, or check the Racket release checklist for help running all the <PKG> tests.

Postscript: Life of a pull request

After submitting a pull request, you enter the “LGTM loop”.

do {
  sleep($a_few_hours);
  if ($changes_requested) {
    make_changes();
  }
  elsif ($one_week_with_no_comments) {
    send_gentle_reminder();
  }
} until ($LGTM);

This code is in Perl so you know not to take it too seriously.

  • Wait a few days for someone to review the pull request. You should receive an email when this happens.
  • If a week goes by with no comment, consider sending a quick “ping, any thoughts on this?” comment to the pull request.
  • If someones comments and requests changes, then make changes in a new commit and push to your branch. GitHub will detect these changes and update the pull request.

Eventually, someone will comment “LGTM” and merge your changes.

“LGTM” probably means “looks good to merge”. It’s a compliment.

Pull requests for a typo fix should be resolved in 1–2 weeks. Same for simple bug fixes.

Pull requests implementing a new feature should be resolved in a few months. Pull requests changing an existing feature may take longer.

Pull requests that implement a backwards-incompatible change to an existing feature are unlikely to be merged until Racket2.

Made with Frog, a static-blog generator written in Racket.
Source code for this blog.